first_img Jul 22, 2005, CIDRAP News story on virulence of strain in 2003 US monkeypox outbreak See also: Finally, the study’s authors described their use of a T-cell quantification method for diagnosis. T cells that retain memory of a specific virus will release antiviral factors (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor–alpha) upon reexposure to the virus. By immunostaining against these factors, it is possible to count relative numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that specifically react to the tested virus. The researchers measured the responses of T cells isolated from vaccinia-immune, monkeypox-infected, and naive subjects. They found that CD8+ cell counts could distinguish between people recently exposed to orthopoxviruses (through monkeypox infection) and those with old exposure from a vaccination or no exposure at all. However, one of the three people who developed no clinical monkeypox symptoms fell below the threshold for recent exposure by this test. In the new article, the authors outline three methods of detecting monkeypox and vaccinia immune response. They first examined whole, killed vaccinia and monkeypox cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. With this technique, they found that people who had never received the smallpox vaccine had very low (<100 ELISA units [EU]) antibody levels. People who received the vaccine but were not exposed to monkeypox had higher vaccinia titers (100-4,400 EU) and a monkeypox-vaccinia antibody ratio of 1:1, indicating only the effects of antibody cross-reactivity rather than monkeypox-specific antibodies. Finally, people infected with monkeypox but never vaccinated against smallpox had high levels of monkeypox antibodies compared with vaccinia antibodies. Aug 11, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – Researchers have identified three people whose previous smallpox vaccinations may have protected them from monkeypox during the 2003 US outbreak. Despite exposure to monkeypox-infected prairie dogs in Wisconsin, these three subjects did not show any clinical signs of the disease. New laboratory results suggest that they developed antibodies to the monkeypox virus but never developed the disease because of their prior smallpox vaccinations. Prior to 1972, approximately 50% of people in the United States received smallpox vaccinations. In 1979, smallpox was declared eradicated, and currently the only known stocks of the virus are at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Russian State Centre for Research on Virology and Biotechnology, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russian Federation. However, some experts suspect that additional stocks may still exist and could be used in a bioterrorist attack. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Because current laboratory techniques cannot distinguish readily between monkeypox and vaccinia antibodies, the authors developed a second ELISA test using specific protein fragments. The compared the genomes of the monkeypox and vaccinia viruses and selected proteins present only in monkeypox. Several of these gene products showed promise as potential diagnostic tools for monkeypox diagnosis. Aug 19, 2003, CIDRAP News story on earlier research by Slifka group [includes link to abstract of study, which was published online Aug 17] Of the eight people who were exposed to both vaccinia (though a prior smallpox vaccination) and monkeypox (through contact with infected prairie dogs), three never developed any clinical symptoms of the disease, though they had high antibody levels indicative of recent orthopoxvirus exposure. These results raised the possibility of persistent immunity following smallpox vaccination in the distant past. Other possibilities for the scenario exist as well, as evidenced by a recent study regarding possible low virulence of the monkeypox virus in the 2003 US outbreak (see below). Second, they point to the utility of the new laboratory techniques in diagnosing monkeypox infections in Africa. They speculated that the techniques presented in the article could ease the problem of diagnosis in an area where outbreaks are frequent, saying "An advantage of using the immunologic assays described here is that a positive diagnosis can be made retrospectively because of persisting immunity."center_img Finally, the authors emphasized the importance of this further evidence of persistent smallpox immunity in the US population over age 35. “The main (albeit speculative) point of this current study, ” the authors emphasized, “is that our findings . . . show that some level of protective immunity probably exists in contemporary subjects who have received smallpox vaccination in the distant past.” Such immunity could prove critical in limiting fatalities from an intentional release of smallpox. Vaccina, the virus used in smallpox vaccines, and the monkeypox virus are closely related members of the viral orthopox family. The authors of a Nature Medicine report published online Aug 7 suggest that antibodies to vaccinia were sufficiently cross-reactive to protect these people from monkeypox. The study’s senior author, Mark Slifka, told the Associated Press that their findings could be beneficial in the event of a smallpox bioterrorist attack. Editor’s note: This article was revised Aug 15, 2005, to include additional information regarding earlier related research. Assessing the level of immunity in the US population has been a subject of great interest in recent years. A prior study by Slifka’s group measured antibody levels in people years after smallpox vaccination and found that antibodies and T-cell responses may persist for as long as 75 years after vaccination. However, some experts found flaws with the authors’ interpretation of their results (see links below), and it has so far proven impossible to verify whether the levels of antibodies measured in vaccinated people would protect them in the case of smallpox exposure. The recent monkeypox outbreak provided a rare opportunity to study the persistence of immunity, as antibodies against vaccinia are cross-reactive to monkeypox. Hammarlund E, Lewis MW, Carter SV, et al. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox. Nat Med 2005 (published online Aug 7) [Abstract] Aug 21, 2003, CIDRAP News story on critique of Aug 17, 2003, study Jul 10, 2003, CIDRAP News story on monkeypox outbreak The authors highlighted three important ramifications of their findings. First, they described how “our diagnostic approaches confirmed monkeypox infection in individuals whose infections were previously listed as probable or suspect.” Though these people showed clinically indicative signs of the disease, their serologic testing came back negative or equivocal. Retrospective testing using whole-cell ELISA, T-cell immunostaining, and/or peptide ELISA was able to confirm the exposure. Sep 12, 2003, CIDRAP News story in which Slifka et al rebut critique abovelast_img read more

first_imgHungary should be excluded from the European Union’s ministerial meetings because of Prime Minister Viktor Orban’s move to take sole command of the nation, Luxembourg’s Foreign Minister Jean Asselborn said.“We cannot accept that there exists a dictatorial government within the EU,” said Asselborn in an interview with the German newspaper Die Welt. “Hungary immediately belongs into strict political quarantine. The Hungarian government should no longer have a seat at the table of the European institutions.”In the country’s fight against the coronavirus, Hungary’s parliament handed Orban the right to rule by decree indefinitely on Monday, effectively giving him control for as long as he sees fit.Topics :last_img read more

first_imgAdvertisement Metro Sport ReporterMonday 31 Aug 2020 5:51 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link10.2kShares Berkhamp advised Van de Beek to join United (Picture: Getty)The former Arsenal forward was Ajax’s assistant manager as Van de Beek made his way through the ranks in Amsterdam and the midfielder dates the forward’s daughter, Estelle.Bergkamp is said to have advised the midfielder to move to Old Trafford and Van de Beek was minded to take his advice, given the 51-year-old struggled in Italy before shining in England with Arsenal. The former Inter Milan ace was fond of the midfielder during his time at the Johan Cruyff arena, with former manager Frank De Boer revealing just how much Bergkamp rated Van De Beek.‘Dennis started talking enthusiastically about a talent in his youth team. It was a boy who reminded Dennis of himself at that age. That was the signal for me to keep an eye on that guy. That was Donny,’ said De Boer.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityVan de Beek is set to become United’s first signing of the summer but Ole Gunnar Solskjaer hopes to make at least two further additions.Jadon Sancho, the 20-year-old Dortmung winger, remains the club’s priority but negotiations are at a standstill due to United’s reluctantance to meet the Germans’ £108m asking price.Elsewhere, Solskjaer hopes to sign a centre-back to partner Harry Maguire.RB Leipzig’s Dayot Upamecano is a leading target but a deal for Sancho is United’s current priority. MORE: Lionel Messi fails to show up for Barcelona training Advertisement Comment Donny van de Beek is set to join Manchester United (Picture: Getty)Arsenal legend Dennis Bergkamp was instrumental in Donny van de Beek’s decision to join Manchester United over the likes of Real Madrid and Barcelona.The Dutchman was absent from Netherlands training this afternoon as he undergoes a medical in Amsterdam ahead of a £40.3million move to Old Trafford.The 23-year-old had looked set to join Real Madrid before the global pandemic hit but the La Liga giants attempted to renegotiate a price for Van de Beek that reflected the financial downturn. Ronald Koeman managed Van de Beek during his time as Holland boss and he was keen to sign the midfielder after being appointed Barcelona manager a fortnight ago.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENTHowever, Manchester United stole a march on the La Liga giants by agreeing a fee on Saturday and Sky Sports claim Bergkamp’s role was pivotal. Arsenal legend Dennis Bergkamp convinced Donny van de Beek to join Manchester Unitedlast_img read more

first_img Lancashire golfers Karen Dunkeld and Vicki Heap teamed up to win the national final of England Golf’s Australian Spoons competition.They saw off the challenge of five other pairs – each representing an England Golf region – and won the stableford foursomes competition at their first attempt.Karen and Vicki, from Lancaster Golf Club, (Image © Leaderboard Photography) came through club and regional rounds to reach the final at Frilford Heath in Oxfordshire where they scored 31 points.Second place went to Hilly Armitage and Sandra Bruce from Donnington Valley in Berkshire, while Angie Odera-Patel and Maritza Stitcher of Stanmore, Middlesex, were third. The competition is contested with pairs with handicaps of 15 and over.“We are well chuffed,” said Karen, while Vicki added: “We’re so thrilled. We came with no expectations but the more we got into it the more we realised how good it would be to win.”Karen, who plays off 30 and Vicki, a 27-handicapper, both took up golf about five years ago – following their husbands. “If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em,” said Vicki while Karen added: “My husband used to go on a lot of golf holidays with his mates and I was left at home!” Now, the two couples are planning a golfing weekend together.The pair play together quite regularly and have found they can keep each other calm. “We don’t panic, we are quite chilled,” Karen while Vicki added: “We just think every game of golf is different. We just give it a good try and do our best.”The Australian Spoons finalists, who were the overnight guests of England Golf, were:Karen Dunkeld and Vicki Heap of Lancaster Golf Club, Lancashire, representing the NorthHilly Armitage and Sandra Bruce of Donnington Valley Golf Club, Berkshire, representing Midlands SouthAngie Odera-Patel and Maritza Stitcher of Stanmore Golf Club, Middlesex, representing the SouthFrances Johnson and Susan Filby of Ryston Park Golf Club, Norfolk, representing the EastLinda Short and Jane Sugar of Portmore, Devon, representing the South WestAileen Kynoch and Abigail Chambers of The Nottinghamshire Golf Club, representing Midlands NorthClick here for the championship webpageCaption:  Karen Dunkeld and Vicki Heap with the Australian Spoons 18 Sep 2015 Lancashire pair triumph in ‘Spoons’ final last_img read more