first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The hot days and muggy nights of late have certainly all but erased now distant memories of the late frost that punctuated the cool, wet spring planting season. Even though harvest season is drawing near, it may not hurt to review the crops that were hurt by the late frost in the not-so-distant past to see if any lessons can be learned for the future.May 16, 2016 is not a date Levi Runkle will soon forget. He is an agronomist for Tri Ag Products in London and he spent the day looking at frost damage in customer’s fields. He is still haunted by what he saw in his corn field that night when he got home.“That particular field was one of the best fields I have ever had in terms of emergence, stand count and population. Even the morning of the 16th it looked great when it had a little frost on it,” Runkle said. “But that night about 8:00 I came back and it was a punch in the gut. It looked pretty bad. I work with customers all the time and tell them that it will be alright, but when it is your own field it is a little different feeling. You could row it great the morning of the 16th and it looked awesome. By the 17th you couldn’t row it. You couldn’t even tell anything had been planted in some places.”After more assessment in the following days, the field looked like a total loss on the surface and multiple people (including the insurance adjuster) said it was a clear replant situation. But according to Ohio State University Extension, the best way to assess the impact of freezing temperatures on emerged corn is to check plants about five days after the freezing injury occurred and observe the condition of the growing point by splitting seedlings lengthwise. If the growing point appears white to light yellow and firm several days after the frost, prognosis for recovery is good.Ohio State University Extension corn specialist Peter Thomison said that corn as far along as the V1 stage (one leaf collar visible) survived freezing soil temperatures with little impact on crop performance or plant stand.“Agronomists generally downplay the impact of low temperature injury in corn because the growing point is at or below the soil surface until V6, and thereby relatively safe from freezing air temperatures,” Thomison said. “Moreover, the cell contents of corn plants can sometimes act as an ‘antifreeze’ to allow temperatures to drop below 32 degrees F before tissue freezes, but injury to corn is often fatal when temperatures drop to 28 degrees F or lower for even a few minutes.”A bit of digging below the surface in Runkle’s field showed good results, but there was still significant skepticism about not replanting the field.“Three days later it was ugly and my neighbors thought it was all dead, but we still had a root system under there and we still had a lot going for us. As we started digging, the stems were still good. They were still intact with a lot of good color to them and they weren’t squishy. I was doing a lot of reading at night, reviewing the things I learned in school and talking to agronomists. The growing point was still under the ground, so I just needed a little time and faith,” he said. “By May 26, though, insurance companies were looking at it and saying that it needed to all be replanted. Replanting then would have lost us a whole month on the original planting date. The plants looked bad but the root system was still good. By May 31, the plants were looking better, but the field still needed torn up according to some people.”But Runkle held strong on the belief that the sound root system and the struggling field just needed more time.The field today, though, looks great after the decision to not replant.“After two or three weeks, it came back up and some of the leaves were curled and it still looked bad. After three weeks it started catching up with the rest of the crop and now it looks great. If we would have replanted then we would have lost the great root system we had. It had been planted around April 20 to 24. Even though it looked bad above ground, it still had a great root system below ground and I wouldn’t trade that for anything going into the hot, dry conditions we saw in July,” he said. “By July 14, you really had to look to find the areas that were frost damaged. It really came back. We had fairly good pollination conditions for that corn and the root system was able to capitalize on the little water we did get. I feel a whole lot better now about not replanting that. If I’d have corn planted a month later, it would have been headed into the hot, dry 90-degree temperatures for pollination. That earlier corn was already pollinated before the heat.”Ultimately, the stand counts had been reduced by the frost, but not at levels great enough to justify replanting.“We might have lost 10% or 15% in the worst parts of the field. We would have needed to see around a 50% loss to warrant replanting that late in the season. From what it looks like today after not replanting I think we are in pretty good shape,” Runkle said. “We would have had to have a really low population to warrant a replant a month later. Where we are now is above 30,000 population and we have a lot more potential with that than a stand that was planted a month later.”While leaving Runkle’s initial corn stand was clearly the way to go, soybeans in the frosted areas did not fare so well. If frost damage occurs above the soybean cotyledons, the plant will likely recover. It will not recover if damaged below the cotyledon.“Beans were a little more of a problem with that frost, especially in a no-till situation with a lot of residue. For the most part, beans that were frosted in that situation needed to be replanted,” Runkle said of his customers’ fields. “There were still some surprises though, where the frost didn’t quite get all of the growing point, or maybe it wasn’t all of the way out of the ground and it looked bad on the cotyledons but once that opened up there was still a good growing point there. Some of those beans surprised us and the beans came back and didn’t need replanting.”Some wheat fields also took a hit.“We had some record wheat yields, with great quality this year and good straw. But, in the areas where it was flowering when it got frosted, especially in the lower areas of the field, we had about half the yield we had everywhere else. We had a lot of issues and it was hard to tell the effect of the frost when it happened because we did not have much experience with a frost on wheat when it was flowering. We learned a lot about that this year,” Runkle said. “With wheat, we had to search far and wide to find anyone with experience with flowering wheat getting frosted. There was purpling on May 18 after being frosted. It looked a little bit like head scab, but it was frost damage. It really did hurt the wheat in some areas where the wheat was flowering when it frosted.”What is now almost forgotten by some has proven to be a great learning experience for Runkle for his fields and the fields of his customers in the future.“We are going to keep track of things in that field and pull some ears on that corn,” he said. “But as of right now, I think we’re doing pretty well.”last_img read more

first_imgRelated Posts Roberta Rottigni Tags:#cyber attacks#IoT#VPN Follow the Puck How Data Analytics Can Save Lives Roberta Rottigni is a tech blogger. Born in Italy but adopted by Israel, she loves writing, traveling, and learning about innovative, tech-related trends. She doesn’t leave the house without a good book in her bag! AI: How it’s Impacting Surveillance Data Storage Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), despite their somewhat esoteric name, aren’t unknown to everyday users. Many people, including myself, use VPN apps or Chrome extensions like Hola to get onto sites that are blocked or otherwise inaccessible in certain countries.Many people find themselves using a VPN for the sake of convenience, very few implement one for the purpose of security.With the ever-growing popularity of IoT devices, however, it’s important to consider using a VPN as an extra security measure. IoT devices gather a variety of confidential data, which makes companies more than a little bit annoyed and apprehensive.  For IoT devices within the home, a VPN helps prevent sensitive personal information from passing into the wrong hands. For businesses, it helps shield confidential company data from potential exposure.Preventing Eavesdropping and LeaksThe eavesdropping potential for IoT devices — particularly for smart home speakers like the Amazon Echo — has caused skepticism and even fear about IoT devices in general. South Park captured these fears in one of its latest episodes. It’s a spoof in which Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos use Alexa to spy on and manipulate an unsuspecting public.Of course, South Park’s account is a hyperbole. But IoT devices, by their very nature, do collect hoards of personal or confidential information, leaving personal data especially vulnerable to hackers or spies. Within the home, for instance, a smart security camera gathers data about when family members are and aren’t home. A smart fitness device will know information about a person’s location, physical health and exercise habits — and what anyone in the house is talking about with their friends.VPNs not only encrypt data, but they also mask a user’s geographical location and IP address. Protecting this data helps prevent third parties, whether hackers, Internet Service Providers, government agencies, or others who might try to gather information about your activities. This means that other entities cannot infiltrate an IoT device and start eavesdropping or leaking confidential information.Protecting Against Common Attacks: Botnets and MITM AttacksA VPN can help protect against two common IoT attacks: botnets and MITM attacks.A botnet is a network of computers or other internet-connected devices that are infected with malware. The devices are controlled as a group, making it possible for hackers to launch large-scale attacks. These attacks can be conducted not just from computers but from all IoT devices as well; hackers can infect a large number of IoT devices with malware to create a botnet that they can use to debilitate a company or access its data. Using a VPN helps mitigate these risks by ensuring that the channel between an IoT device and its server are completely protected.Likewise, VPNs help prevent MITM (Man-In-The-Middle) attacks, which involve third parties intercepting network traffic — for example, between an IoT device and the network’s central access point. VPNs, by encrypting traffic, ensure that the data gathered from the IoT device is unreadable–even in the event that a malicious actor intercepts that traffic.VPNs and IoT Go Hand-in-HandWhile consumers and businesses love IoT devices for the sake of ease and convenience, there is a great deal of outcry over the security of such devices. No device, whether a smart home speaker or smart vacuum cleaner, is without such controversy.Business, as well as individuals, need to be cautious about the security loopholes that can come with such devices. For companies, there are plenty of recommended business VPN providers that will help ensure more secure operations without compromising on network speed. For everyday consumers, free VPN services, many of which are quite reputable and secure, work just as well.It’s ultimately the responsibility of the production side to make such devices more secure. As it stands, however, IoT devices have too little computing power to include inbuilt security features and encryption software.For now, it’s up to the users to take the first step in protecting themselves. In order to account for the lack of sufficient inbuilt security mechanisms, we need to make VPN use an inherent part of responsible IoT device use. Leveraging Big Data that Data Websites Should T…last_img read more